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Hydrothermal Alkaline Treatment for Complete PFAS Destruction

Zero byproducts. Complete destruction of long-chain and ultra-short chain. Backed by two world-leading research institutions and six federal agencies.

Our Process

Our HALT process harnesses the unique properties of hot, compressed water to break the strong carbon-fluorine bonds that hold PFAS together.

Benefits of HALT 

1
Discharge to Non-detectable PFAS Levels
2
No Air Emissions or Toxic Byproducts
3
Rapid Complete Destruction of Long, Short and Ultra-short Chain PFAS Compounds
4
Minimal Energy Consumption
5
Proven Continuous Flow Treatment Approach

Compare HALT
The difference is clear.

Destructive Approach
Advantage
Disadvantage
Incineration
  • Mature approach
  • Requires temperatures >1800 °F
  • EPA intends to prohibit incineration
  • Air emissions
Electrochemical Oxidation
  • Effective for destruction of long chains 
  • Produces short chains
  • Energy intensive
  • Long residence times (~8 hours)
Plasma
  • Effective for destruction of long chains 
  • Produces short chains
  • Energy intensive
  • Long residence times (~1 hours)
UV-Sulfite
  • Effective for destruction of long chains 
  • Not as effective as other destruction methods
  • Long residence times (~8 hours)
Supercritical Water Oxidation
  • High destruction efficacy
  • Short residence times
  • Ability to recover energy
  • Inability to treat high salinity feedstocks
  • Difficult to manage system corrosion
  • Process complexity for managing exothermic reactions
  • Significant site infrastructure requirements
Hydrothermal Alkaline Treatment
  • High destruction efficacy
  • Short residence times
  • Treatment of high salinity wastewater
  • Low energy requirements with heat recovery
  • No toxic byproducts
  • No disadvantages
Information is based on currently publically available published data.
Destructive Approach
Advantage
Disadvantage
Incineration
Mature approach
Requires temperatures >1800 °F
Regulatory and liability concerns
Air emissions
Electrochemical Oxidation
Effective for destruction of long chains 
Produces short chain PFAS
Energy intensive
Long residence times
Plasma
Effective for destruction of long chains 
Produces short chain PFAS
Energy intensive
Long residence times
UV
Effective for destruction of perfluorocarboxylic acids
Difficulty treating perfluorosulfonic acids
Long residence times
Inability to treat turbid water
Diminished efficacy when co-contaminants are present
Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO)
High destruction efficacy
Short residence times
Ability to recover energy
Inability to treat high salinity feedstocks
Difficult to manage system corrosion
Process complexity for managing exothermic reactions
Significant site infrastructure requirements
Hydrothermal Alkaline Treatment (HALT)
High destruction efficacy
Short residence times
Treatment of high salinity wastewater
Low energy requirements with heat recovery
No toxic byproducts
Uses common chemical amendments such as caustic soda / lye
Information is based on currently available published data.

Compare HALT
The difference is clear.

Incineration
Advantage
Mature approach
Disadvantage
Regulatory and liability concerns
Requires temperatures >1800 °F
Air emissions
Electrochemical Oxidation
Advantage
Effective for destruction of long chains 
Disadvantage
Produces short chain PFAS
Energy intensive
Long residence times
Plasma
Advantage
Mature approach
Disadvantage
Produces short chain PFAS
Energy intensive
Long residence times
UV
Advantage
Effective for destruction of perfluorocarboxylic acids
Disadvantage
Difficulty treating perfluorosulfonic acids
Long residence times
Inability to treat turbid water
Diminished efficacy when co-contaminants are present
Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO)
Advantage
High destruction efficacy
Short residence times
Ability to recover energy
Disadvantage
Inability to treat high salinity feedstocks
Difficult to manage system corrosion
Process complexity for managing exothermic reactions
Significant site infrastructure requirements
Hydrothermal Alkaline Treatment (HALT)
Advantage
High destruction efficacy
Short residence times
Treatment of high salinity wastewater
Low energy requirements with heat recovery
No toxic byproducts
Disadvantage
Uses common chemical amendments such as caustic soda / lye
Destructive Approach
Advantage
Disadvantage
Incineration
  • Mature approach
  • Requires temperatures >1800 °F
  • EPA intends to prohibit incineration
  • Air emissions
Electrochemical Oxidation
  • Effective for destruction of long chains 
  • Produces short chains
  • Energy intensive
  • Long residence times (~8 hours)
Plasma
  • Effective for destruction of long chains 
  • Produces short chains
  • Energy intensive
  • Long residence times (~1 hours)
UV-Sulfite
  • Effective for destruction of long chains 
  • Not as effective as other destruction methods
  • Long residence times (~8 hours)
Supercritical Water Oxidation
  • High destruction efficacy
  • Short residence times
  • Ability to recover energy
  • Inability to treat high salinity feedstocks
  • Difficult to manage system corrosion
  • Process complexity for managing exothermic reactions
  • Significant site infrastructure requirements
Hydrothermal Alkaline Treatment
  • High destruction efficacy
  • Short residence times
  • Treatment of high salinity wastewater
  • Low energy requirements with heat recovery
  • No toxic byproducts
  • No disadvantages
Information is based on currently publically available published data.
Product technical Specifications

Designing and delivering a first-of-its kind mobile treatment solution.

Our system accepts a variety of feedstocks to meet your treatment goals. Your water is continuously fed to the intake, and then clean water comes out.

Our Solutions

Pilot

Series
1 to 2 gph

Steed

Series
10 to 20 gph

Stampede

Series
50 to 150 gph
System Info
Pilot Series
Nominal Continuous Flow Rate (gph)*
1 to 2 gph
Energy Consumption (kWh/gal)
1.2
Emissions
None - no exhaust gas
Performance
99% to 99.99% destruction and defluorination of PFAS
Electrical Supply
480V/3P
Footprint
8’ x 4’
Weight (lbs)
750
Interconnection Details
Two connections - influent and effluent
Quick and easy hook up
Integrate into new or existing continuous systems, or deploy to treat large volumes of stored wastewater
Steed Series
Nominal Continuous Flow Rate (gph)*
10 to 20 gph
Energy Consumption (kWh/gal)
1
Emissions
None - no exhaust gas
Performance
99% to 99.99% destruction and defluorination of PFAS
Electrical Supply
480V/3P
Footprint
10’ x 8’
Weight (lbs)
7,000
Interconnection Details
Two connections - influent and effluent
Quick and easy hook up
Integrate into new or existing continuous systems, or deploy to treat large volumes of stored wastewater
Stampede Series
Nominal Continuous Flow Rate (gph)*
50 to 150 gph
Energy Consumption (kWh/gal)
.8
Emissions
None - no exhaust gas
Performance
99% to 99.99% destruction and defluorination of PFAS
Electrical Supply
480V/3P
Footprint
40’ x 8’
Weight (lbs)
12,000
Interconnection Details
Two connections - influent and effluent
Quick and easy hook up
Integrate into new or existing continuous systems, or deploy to treat large volumes of stored wastewater
*Undergoing comprehensive life cycle testing to ensure reliability and longevity
All Units
Operation
PLC based industrial control and automation
Touch screen HMI
Operator and 24/7 system support
Deployable to most industrial sites
Operates using either temporary generator or grid power
Safety
Automated safety interlocks build into control system
Automated start-up and shut-down procedures
System designed and manufactured in accordance with ASME codes
Deployable to most industrial sites
Instrumentation & Monitoring
Flow, pressure, temperature, pH sensing
Optional service for periodic automated sample collection
Remote Operation Features
Wireless remote operation and monitoring of system
Datalogging of system operating parameters
Live video monitoring of system
System Performance Info
Pilot Series
Steed Series
Stampede Series
Nominal Continuous Flow Rate (gph)*
1 to 2 gph
10 to 20 gph
50 to 150 gph
Energy Consumption (kWh/gal)
1.2
1
.8
Emissions
None - no exhaust gas
Performance
99% to 99.99% destruction and defluorination of PFAS
*Undergoing comprehensive life cycle testing to ensure reliability and longevity
Technical Integration
Pilot Series
Steed Series
Stampede Series
Electrical Supply
480V/3P
480V/3P
480V/3P
Footprint
8’ x 4’
10’ x 8’
40’ x 8’
Weight (lbs)
750
7,000
12,000
Influent/Effluent Interconnection Details
Two connections - influent and effluent
Quick and easy hook up
Integrate into new or existing continuous systems, or deploy to treat large volumes of stored wastewater
Operation and Safety
All Series Units
Operation
PLC based industrial control and automation
Touch screen HMI
Operator and 24/7 system support
Deployable to most industrial sites
Operates using either temporary generator or grid power
Safety
Automated safety interlocks build into control system
Automated start-up and shut-down procedures
System designed and manufactured in accordance with ASME codes
Instrumentation & Monitoring
Flow, pressure, temperature, pH sensing
Optional service for periodic automated sample collection
Remote Operation Features
Wireless remote operation and monitoring of system
Datalogging of system operating parameters
Live video monitoring of system
metrics

Peer Reviewed Studies

Scientific publications continue to affirm that hydrothermal treatment is effective and safe.

Destruction of PFAS in AFFF-impacted fire training pit water, with a continuous hydrothermal alkaline treatment reactor

Pinkard et al.
2023
View Study

Application of Hydrothermal Alkaline Treatment to Spent Granular Activated Carbon: Destruction of Adsorbed PFASs and Adsorbent Regeneration

Soker et al.
2023
View Study

Application of Hydrothermal Alkaline Treatment for Destruction of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Contaminated Groundwater and Soil

Hao et al.
2022
View Study

Review: Hydrothermal treatment of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)

Li et al.
2021
View Study

Hydrothermal Alkaline Treatment for Destruction of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Aqueous Film-Forming Foam

Hao et al.
2021
View Study

Aqueous Film-Forming Foam Treatment under Alkaline Hydrothermal Conditions

Pinkard
2021
View Study

Rapid Destruction and Defluorination of Perfluorooctanesulfonate by Alkaline Hydrothermal Reaction

Wu et al.
2019
View Study

Research and Technology Partnerships

Our technology has been validated by two world-leading research institutions and is backed by six federal agencies. 
University of Washington
University of Alaska Fairbanks
Idaho National Laboratory
Colorado School of Mines

Research and Technology Partnerships

FAQ | Our Tech

How does HALT compare to SCWO?
Our process is similar to SCWO, but rather than using an oxidant to drive PFAS destruction, we use an alkaline amendment (essentially as a catalyst), which allows us to operate at much lower temperatures, pressures, and with much less process complexity.

View Peer Reviewed Studies
What analysis methods have been used to confirm complete defluorination / mineralization?
Standard LC-MS/MS analysis of PFAS levels coupled with fluoride ISE or IC measurement of free fluoride. This has been supplemented by non-targeted LC-QToF-MS and 19F NMR for a limited number of samples.

View Peer Reviewed Studies
Can you provide more information on the reagent?  
We use a cheap caustic amendment to drive effective PFAS destruction.

View Peer Reviewed Studies
How much energy does the system use?
The Steed Series system requires two 480 V, 3 Phase outlets (60 A and 20 A). Energy consumed is ~1 kWh per gallon.
Do you have current availability for a pilot demonstration?
Yes. Contact us today to book a bench or pilot demonstration.
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